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Anorak | Israel And Palestine 1920-1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Israel And Palestine 1920-1948: The Story In 100 Photos

by | 31st, December 2013

WHAT Did Palestine look like before 14 May 1948, when the State of Israel declared Independence? We’ve raided the archives. All captions are the originals. They tell their own story:

17514715 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Professor Albert Einstein and his wife Elsa arrive from Palestine to raise funds for Zionism, April 4, 1921.

9750377 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

General Allenby (British) enters the captured City of Jerusalem, Palestine, Dec. 9, 1917. He entered on foot thru the Gate of David.

17267998 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Jewish refugees, arriving on April 14, 1920 in Haifa, Palestine, aboard the Theodore Herzl. Some are carrying on their shoulders the bodies, in white shrouds, of two of their compatriots, who they say were slain when the Theodore Herzl was boarded by British personnel after unsuccessfully attempting to run the British Blockade.

1920 women Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Palestinian women drink coffee – Palestine between 1900-1920

 

7380130 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Some 10,000 of the 48,000 Palestine Arab Refugees who have settled in and around Damascus, Syria, staged a demonstration in Damascus, last week in April 1929 to express their gratitude to the Syrian Army for the recent Syria-Israel border clashes. They asked to be accepted as volunteers for the Syrian fighting forces so that they night fight back at Israel, upon which country they blame their present unhappy condition as refugees. Photo shows: An elderly lady addresses a great crowd of Palestine Arabs in the court-yard of the Army General Headquarters in Damascus. Her speech was among others heard there by Syrian Officers.

8524146 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

On Mount Gerizim, outside Nablus, in central Palestine, there is an ancient Jewish sect known as the Samaritans, which claim to have lived in the Holy Land continuously since the time of Moses. At Passover they conduct the ancient sacrifice of a lamb upon an altar. Aaron, the high priest of the Samaritans with some of their laws, inscribed on ancient scrolls in the Aramaic text shown May 16, 1930.

7091242 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The tired groups shown above on the ship King Carol were a part of 318 homeless Jews barred from entering Palestine by the Quota system restricting immigration on Dec. 5, 1934. For two months they wandered vainly seeking a country where they would be permitted to land. Finally the polish government consented to receive them and they were landed at Constanza, Roumania and transported to Poland by train.

8999269 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The second battalion of the Dorsetshire regiment was moved into the holy land to reinforce those quelling Arab-Jew riots. The troops are shown being piped into Jerusalem by the band of the Second Battalion on June 22, 1936. The queen’s own Cameron Highlanders

7599990 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

A train of donkeys crosses the Allenby Bridge, over the River Jordan on July 3, 1936, from Jordan into Palestine.

8988940 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

In order to destroy the strongholds and hiding places of anti-Jewish Arab rioters in this city British troops were detailed off to blow up the older portions of the city with dynamite. Other troops were posted throughout the town to deal with hostile Arab demonstrations from those who had been evicted. The demolition also cleared the way for the building of new roads. A general view of the older part of Jaffa, Israel on July 3, 1936 after buildings had been blown up with dynamite. (AP Photo)

15066155 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Due to the continued hostilities of the arabs in Palestine, Jewish police are being trained by British officers and given military training. A Jewish police corporal, right, training Jewish police recruits, under ther eye of a British officer, left, on July 30, 1936. (AP Photo)

13835862 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The troopship Dorsetshire, with members of the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, Royal Irish Fusiliers and Royal Engineers regiments on noard, sails from Southampton, England, on Sept. 12, 1936, enroute to Palestine, where the troops will reinforce the existing force out there.

12519631 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The British military authorities in Palestine have virtually taken over the railways, and there are unmistakable signs of military control along the line from here to Tel Aviv, Sept. 22, 1936. Special arrangements have been made to guard the line for fear of sabotage.

13500819 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The leader of the aran revolys in Palestine Fawzi Bey Al Qavoukchi, on Sept. 28, 1936.

12728710 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The royal commission to investigate conditions in Palestine started work at the reception held at the government house in Jerusalem, Israel on Nov. 12, 1936. Lord Peel, chairman of the royal commission, reading his opening speech. Sir Arthur Wauchope, high commissioner for Palestine is seen on left in armchair. The members of the commission are left to right: Sir Morris Carter, Sir Horace Rumbold, Vice-Chairman, Lord Peel, Sir Laurie Hammond, Sir Harold Morris, and Mr. Reginald.

8999277 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Funds are being raised in Nablus to rebuild the structures demolished by British troops during the Arab “Reign of terror”. The ruins of a building in Nablus which the British Blew up because it was used by Arab snipers on Jan. 12, 1937.

12462266 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The Mufti of Jerusalem appeared before the Royal Palestine commission on January 12 as the first spokesman for the Arab Case. For two months the Arab higher committee, headed by the Mufti, declined to co-operate with the commission. The decision to testify came after the Arab sovereigns of Iraq and Saudi Arabia and appeared to the committee to appear before the commission. The Mufti (left) leaving the offices of the commission after his testimony on Jan. 12, 1937.

12510469 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Rabbi Isaac Hertzog of Dublin arrived in Haifa, Palestine, Israel on Jan. 15, 1937, to take up his duties as Chief Rabbi of Palestine. He succeeds Chief Rabbi Kook, who died 16 months ago.

6950812 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Malcolm MacDonald, son of Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald and Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs from 1935 – 1938. MacDonald later became Secretary of State for the Colonies. In 1939 MacDonald oversaw and introduced the so-called MacDonald White Paper, which aimed at the creation of a unified state, with controls on Jewish immigration

11975205 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Sir Charles Tegart, the man who suppressed terrorism in Bengal and who earned the title “Man of Iron,” is going to Palestine to advise the government on police organization there. Mr. Ormsby-Gore, colonial secretary, who made the announcement, said that the immediate and primary duty of the government and Palestine administration is to take vigounous measures to combat terrorism. Sir Charles Tegart in London on Oct. 22, 1937 after the announcement of his visit to Palestine.

11083325 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The gateway from Syria into Palestine, Jerusalem in 1938. Owing to the secret entry of thousands of Arab Rebels from Syria and the Lebanon into the Holy land, strict watch must be kept by the French and British police at the frontier.

8988932 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

British troops, reinforced by new arrival’s are concentrating on the Galilee area north Palestine, in the General hunt for Arab rebels on Jan. 11, 1938. New rubber tired British 3.75 howitzers bombarding rebels in the Galilee (north Palestine) area.

8999283 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

With a rifle at hand to stave off further attacks, this group of Jewish colonists, aided by Arab villagers, String barded wire in the 50 mile, tegarts wall, on the Palestine-Syria border on July 20, 1938 after bands of Marauding Arabs damaged the fence and engaged police in rifle fire. Arab bands and colonists have engaged with fatal result in clashes throughout July.

11769974 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The lighter basin, with two big goods sheds in the background, at Tel Aviv, which took its place alongside the great port cities of the world when the high commissioner for Palestine, Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope, declared the “baby” port open for passenger traffic, during the ceremony, much of which had to be curtailed owing to heavy rain, a crowd with hoisted umbrellas can be seen in rear of the picture on Feb. 23, 1938.

11548480 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Volunterr Jewish soldiers who prevent interference with the American-Jewish colonies in Palestine, Israel on August 23, 1938. They are being called upon a lot during the present Palestine Troubles.

 

11402923 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Modern American style of office building and skyscrapers apartment houses, finely paved wide streets and smart shops show the remarkable growth of New Jerusalem on Oct. 23, 1938. Under the leadership of American Jews, who have converted the holy city from a mere medieval village to a live progressive and prosperous city of the first class, the Arabs have profited very largely from the phenomenal growth of Jerusalem by the profitable sale of the land on which most of these buildings are constructed. (AP Photo)

8988880 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Police post built under a Muslim mosque to prevent Arab sniping in Israel on Nov. 4, 1938. (AP Photo)

 

11548483 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

American Jewish colonists in Palestine completing the so called Tegart fence on August 23, 1938, which cost 500,000 dollars to build. It is 75 kilometres long, on the Palestine-Syria border, was suggested by Sir Charles Tegart, part of the British scheme to stamp out the Palestine disorders.

11548664 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Tent colony of American-Jewish settlers near Jerusalem, Palestine, Israel on August 23, 1938. It is under constant guard during present troubles.

10651392 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Field Marshal Hermann Goering makes his dramatic speech at Nuremberg, Germany on Sept. 10, 1938. In a violent two-hour polemic at Nuremberg, Field Marshal Goering attacked the Czech government, boasted Germany’s vast food stores were sufficient to defy any blockade, that her western fortifications were impregnable and that her air force was the strongest in the world. He also criticized England, pointed to the unrest in Palestine.

11456436 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Following Chancellor Adolf Hitler’s long awaited address at the Nuremberg Nazi Congress closing session on September 12, in which he said he would not tolerate a new Palestine in Europe, demanded autonomy for the Sudeten Germans, referred to Gigantic Fortifications on the German western frontier, were followed on September 13 in London, England, with discussions at number 10 Downing Street between Premier Neville Chamberlain and ministers of his Majesty’s government. One of the visitors was leader of the opposition Mr. C.R. Attlee. Leader of the opposition Mr. C.R. Attlee arriving at No. 10 Downing Street, London, England on Sept. 13, 1938. Neville Chamberlain latest developments in the Czech situation

14557119 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Funeral for British army victim of the Arab revolt in Palestine, who was buried with full military honors by his comrades, at Ramla, near Jerusalem, Sept. 9, 1938.

8988927 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

War trucks filled with fully armed British soldiers are shown on the road to ancient Hebron, city of the holy land, Israel on Sept. 5, 1938, where radial religious strife threatened to destroy the Biblical town. The town was sacked by Rebel Arabs, the driver of a British tank was slain and buildings were burned in the cut break which brought these motor lorries dashing to the terror torn city.

14567772 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

An Arab stands beside a section of ìTegartís Iron wallî in Israel in 1938, erected by Sir Charles Tegart to keep marauding Arabs out of Palestine. The fence, three strains of barbed wire on angular iron supports. Stretches for 60 miles on the Syria-Lebanon borders and cost $ 500,000.

8999273 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

This time suppression of the Arab rebellion in Palestine is the British soldier’s lot. After months of terrorism, loss of lives in the hundreds and loss of trade in the millions, Britain apparently is determined to halt the terror and is dispatching thousands of additional troops. Photo shows Tommies after disembarking from a transport at Haifa on Oct. 11, 1938, when they were to be assigned to the duties in Jerusalem and other disturbed points.

8988868 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

British troops in action in Palestine, Israel on Oct. 19, 1938, during the reconquest of old Jerusalem from great rebel.

8988935 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

British troops in action in Palestine, Israel on Oct. 19, 1938, during the reconquest of old Jerusalem from great rebel.

14567795 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Since the British occupation of Jerusalem, Palestine, after the old city had been held for four days by Arabs, a measure of calm has descended on the district. Storm centre October 24óWhen this picture reached London by air after being was Jaffa, where there was sniping. British police captain leading Jewish kiddies to safety away from Arab snipers during the reoccupation of the old city of Jerusalem in Palestine, Israel on Oct. 24, 1938, by the British.

11463174 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The authorities are still making a determined bid to wipe out bands of rebels who are terrorizing Palestine. Volunteer “terror squad” of police-helpers, armed with rifles, scouring the mountains of Samaria, central Palestine, in pursuit of rebels on Oct. 24, 1938.

8655135 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

British machine guns and sandbag barricades are set up in the courtyard of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, Palestine, Oct. 26, 1938.

14567773 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

British soldiers resting at the Damascus Gate in the Holy City November 1938.

14567842 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

11457770 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Fakhri Nashashibi; Member of Arab National Defence Committee is challenging the leadership of the ex-mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Effendi Al Husseini, in exile in Syria. Nashashibi, who comes from one of the most distinguished Arab families in Palestine, says the ex-mufti is no prophet but a self-seeking politician, who is running Palestine by his campaign of terror. Fakhri Nashashibi stands between two of his chief supporters (tribal heads from the Hebron District) in Jerusalem on Nov. 24, 1938.

8988871 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The British Army, strengthened by newly arrived reinforcements from England, Malta, India, and Egypt are conducting an intensive drive against Arab Rebels in historic Galilee, Northern, Palestine. British riflemen in action against Arab rebels at a mountain outpost in Israel on Nov. 10, 1938.

11881166 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Among the stars of stage, screen and radio who appeared in New York’s Madison Square Garden in a benefit performance for the relief of persecuted European Jews who wish to settle in Palestine, were Eddie Cantor, left, George Jessel, in blackface makeup, Nov. 17, 1938. They are joined by New York Yankees “Ironman” Lou Gehrig, who scratches his head.

8988943 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

British soldiers in steel helmets after they recaptured the Old City of Jerusalem at the Damascus Gate, November 1938.

14557124 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The British army dynamites Arab stone houses in northern Palestine in reprisal for rebel activities, Jan. 9, 1939.

14557145 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Latest British artillery with rubber-tired wheels, in action against Arab rebels in Palestine, Jan. 9, 1939.

14557151 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Latest British artillery with rubber-tired wheels, in action against Arab rebels in Palestine, Jan. 9, 1939.

11196752 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The Arabian delegates to the forthcoming round table conference in London on the Palestine question were entertainmed by the Egyptian government to a banquet in Cairo before leaving for London to attend the conference. The delegates left Cairo on January 23, after an announcement by Ragheb Nashashibi Bey, the leader of the moderate Palestine defense party that his party would not join the delegation owing to that fact that they had been selected to attend the conference without the party approval. The President of the Egyptian Council, Mohamed Mahmoud the heir apparent of Yemen, before the banquet given to the Arabian delegates to the round table conference in Cairo, Egypt on Jan. 18. 1939

8988884 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

“Save our children and our parents!” say these Jewish placards carried by men in the streets of Jerusalem, Israel on Jan. 16, 1939. “Open the gates of Palestine to the times of Nazi prevention hatred at the Christmas period we are crying from the holy city of Jew Salem to all Christian nations to help us against “Germany”.

11140507 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Palestine has been the scene of much death and destruction during the past two years, consequent on the conflict between Arab and Jew, and Jerusalem the holy has not escaped from scenes of violence. The famous Damascus gate of Jerusalem, scene of many incidents that have affected the history of Jerusalem and Palestine in an undated photo. This leads from the new city to the old quarter and is regarded by both factions as of strategic importance.

11087382 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Rabbi Dr. Stephen Wise, who is to represent the interests of Zionist Jews at the forthcoming conference on Palestine problems at St. James’s Palace on February 4 arrived in London, where he was welcomed by Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, the secretary of state for the colonies, on behalf of the British government. Rabbi Dr. Stephen Wise fills in his leisure moments at his London hotel after his arrival on Feb. 4, 1939, by reading a book dealing with Herr Hitler, as can be seen from the picture.

11150181 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The Palestine conference, in which the British government is seeking to Bring Agreement between Jews and Arabs, has opened at St. James’s Palace, London, England. Jewish delegates and Arabs are meeting separately as the Arabs refuse to meet with the Jews. The situation is further complicated for the British government by the fact that even all the Arabs do not wish to sit together. Dr. Chaim Weizmann, noted scientist, leader of the Jewish delegation, leaving St. James’s Palace, London, England on Feb. 7, 1939

11202364 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Some of the Arab delegates to attend the forthcoming Palestine conference in London arrived at Waterloo. Prince Abdul Monheim, smiling as he drove away from Waterloo on his arrival in London on Jan. 26, 1939

11150238 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The Prime Minister opened the conference on the future of Palestine in the old Banqueting hall at St. James’s Palace in London on Feb. 7, 1939. Mr. Chamberlain opened the discussions with a speech to the Arab delegations at 10.30 A.M., and at midday, he made the opening speech to the Jewish agency delegation, this course being necessary because the Arabs not recognize the Jewish Agency as a body with whom they can treat. A general view of the first meeting of the Jewish of the conference at St. James’s.

11149381 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The Arab centre party who are now in London, to attend the deliberations of the conference on Palestine now meeting daily at St. James’s Palace, gave a reception and tea party at the Hyde Park hotel on Feb. 8, 1939, to the other Arab delegations to the conference, including the delegations from the Yemen, from Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine. Mr. Malcolm Macdonald, the British minister for the colonies, was among the number of distinguished guests. Nuri el said Pasha, the Iraqi minister, left, with the Yemen delegates, Al Qadhi IBN Hussain Amri (with glasses), and Al Qadhi Muhammed Abdullah at the Hyde Park hotel.

11071384 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

For the first time since the conference on Palestine Began in London, members of the Arab and Jewish delegations met together on February 23, to discusses the problems confronting them. The meeting was informal and was a last endeavour to save the conference from breakdown. Ali Maher Pasha, chief of the Egyptian delegates to the conference, leaving St. James’s Palace in London on Feb. 23, 1939, after the first meeting of the Jews and Arabs. (AP Photo)

10924473 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The Saudi-Arabian Princes Feisal and Khaled Ibn Seoud gave a Farewell Tea Party at Shepheard’s Hotel, Cairo on April 27 to members of the diplomatic corps. They had been discussing Arab problems in Cairo. The Tea time walk was all about Palestine. Ali Maher Pash, Chief of the Egyptian Cabinet, with his host Prince Feisal, at the Cairo Tea Party on May 1, 1939. (AP Photo)

10878630 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Great civil disturbances, eventually quelled by police and troops, developed from the Jewish demonstration against the British plan for the future of Palestine. In Jerusalem and other cities of Palestine, one constable was killed. Jewish youths leading the parade from which the trouble began. The Jewish flag they carry in Jerusalem, Israel on May 18, 1939. (AP Photo)

10823752 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, colonial secretary, left, Croydon for Geneva. He submits the British government’s white paper proposals for the future of Palestine to the league mandates committee. Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, boarding an air liner at Croydon, London on June 13, 1939 for Geneva, June 13. (AP Photo)

7091235 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

22 ton steamer arrested off Palestine with 400 refugees aboard after a month at sea. With 401 men, women and children huddled on the upper deck with cattle and poultry. The Greek-manned panama steamer Atratto was arrested inside territorial waters off Jaffa, Palestine, on July 17, 1939. By the minesweeper H.M.S. Sutton. She was escorted into Haiffa where the captain and crew are awaiting trial for attempting to smuggle refugees into Palestine. Though crowded in misery on the open deck $25 was the cost of the passage into Palestine, the fee not including bedding or food. Associated Press Photo Shows: The crowded decks of the S.S. Atratto, showing that even the lifeboat (center) was displaced with the great crowd on the steamers’ decks. These “Berths’ cost $25 a head. (AP Photo)

10716164 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

General Sir Archibald Wavell, the former commander of the British troops in Palestine, arrived in Cairo, Egypt on August 2 to take command in his newly-created post of commander of the British troops in the Middle East. General Sir Archibald Wavell, right, with General Sir Henry Maitland Wilson, the commander of the British troops in Egypt, on his arrival at headquarters in Cairo on August 2, 1939. (AP Photo)

10392240 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Several thousand polish soldiers, such as these, have gone from Syria to Palestine to fight on with the British on Nov. 29, 1940. They already have adopted the thumbs up sign from their British Allies. (AP Photo)

10408014 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Palestine is very well protected against any air attack, and a visit was made to one of the Anti-Aircraft batteries, during a practice shoot. One of the gun crews in action on August 12, 1940. (AP Photo)

10392273 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Palestine Jews mobilize for national service these are seen reporting at a recruiting office in the Jewish city of Tel Aviv, Israel on Nov. 2, 1939. (AP Photo)

10372711 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The GOC Palestine visited the famous Druse-Regiment which is recruited from Druses of the Djebel Druse and other parts of the Middle East. Some are mounted on camels, others on horses. All are keen warriors and they form a useful and picturesque addition to the Allied forces. A camel group marching past the G.O.C on March 2, 1940. They made a wonderful picture, armed to the teeth and mounted on their fine beasts. (AP Photo)

10754349 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Dr. Chaim Weizmann, presiding over the 21st Zionist Congress in Geneva, mad an attack on Great Britain’s White paper proposals for the solution of the Palestine problem in his opening speech on August 17. Opposition has been determined on. Congress opened August 16. From left to right are Dr. Weizmann, Mr. Tom Williams, M.P., Mr. Ussischkin, and Mr. Ben Gurion at the Zionist congress at Geneva on August 16, 1939. Behind Dr. Weizmann is the Rev. Perlsweig, leader of English Zionism. (AP Photo)

7088695 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

In the early morning in Tel Aviv, the S.S. Parita, with 700 Jewish refugees on board, was beached opposite the Ritz Hotel in Tel Aviv, the all-Jewish town in Palestine, Aug. 22, 1939. After the beaching of the vessel the refugees disembarked. (AP Photo)

An official shows the signed document which proclaims the establishment of the new Jewish state of Israel declared by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, left, in Tel Aviv at midnight on May 14, 1948. The Jews declared independence in the new state of Israel as the 25-year British mandate over Palestine ends.
Mrs. Golda Meir is the only female member of the provisional council of the new state of Israel, waves following her arrival at La Guardia Field, New York, May 19, 1948 from Jerusalem. She declared that “if the United state arms embargo is lifted, we can drive the Arabs out in a few weeks.” She added that the Jewish people in Palestine were optimistic of the successful outcome of the war because finances and manpower have been solidly mobilized.
10005899 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Swiss Jean Courvoisier, staff member of the Red Cross in Jerusalem, holds his organization’s flag as he walks together with an unidentified colleague on no man’s land in search for victims of the Jewish Arab conflict on May 10, 1948 in the Katamon outskirts of Jerusalem, Israel. Despite of the flag he was shot on twice by Arab snipers.

7445783 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

An Arab legion soldier fingers a machine gun as he stands guard in Jerusalem on Jan. 6, 1948 where his army is on loan to the British army to help out because of shortage of British soldiers in the holy land. (

5737241 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

This is a mass grave used to bury 104 victims of the Deir Yassin massacre, April 1948. The round stone ring is a mass grave filled with female victims, and the square is a common grave for the men.

5737253 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Menachem Begin, at his home in Tel-Aviv, Israel, March 25, 1948, is the leader of the Herut party in the Republic of Israel. The party is the strongest opposition party to prime minister David Ben-Gurion’s Mapai party. Begin led one of the biggest terrorist gangs theat fought the British before the state of Israel was created. In 1948 the British placed a 30 000 Pound reward on his head, dead or alive. Now he is considered the number two man on Israel’s political scene and he has been a strong opponent of Ben-Gurion’s solution of the Gaza problem.

7445873 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

With registration on full swing, Haganah, the Jewish defense organization, puts all recruits through stiff training courses on March 11, 1948 in Jerusalem. There are several such camps, set up in secret locations. Besides training in the sued of arms, the youths are pout through a strenuous body conditioning program. At one stage of training, the recruits climb hand-over-hand up hanging ropes.

5737261 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Members of the Jewish Defence Oraganisation Haganah, armed with sten guns, keep guard in an orange grove, near Rehovoth, Palestine, March 8, 1948, after arabs had attacked Jewish buses and convoys in the area.

7436344 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

An Arab, armed with a sub-machine gun, stands guard at Jerusalem’s Wailing Wall on Feb. 23, 1948. Jews are being kept from this centuries-old holy place by Arabs for the first time since the Arab-Jewish disorders in 1939.

7436326 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Armed Arabs surround the press car of American and British correspondents as the newsmen arrive at Taiba on a tour of Arab villages in Middle Palestine on Feb. 10, 1948. The correspondents encountered frequent roadblocks set up by the Arabs to keep a close check on traffic in fear of Jewish attacks.

5737217 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

An injured Jewish couple walk past rescuers searching for wounded and dead people in the wreckage of shops on Ben Yehuda Street, Jerusalem, Feb. 22, 1948, after a bomb exploded. The bomb killed 52 Jews and wounded 100 more and levelled buildings on both sides of the street.

5737265 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Two trucks exploded on Ben Yehuda Street, in the heart of the Jewish business district of Jerusalem, Feb. 2, 1948, killing 27 people and injuring more than 100 others.

13637912 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

7436347 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

A volunteer trainee for the Hagana Leaps from a flaming house, rifle in hand on Dec. 30, 1947, during training near Tel Aviv as Jews prepare for fighting against Arabs as a result of the United Nations decision partitioning Palestine. The trainee has just set fire of the house, which formerly was an Arab home

10005962 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Members of the Jewish right-wing underground organization Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization in the Land of Israel) are armed with rifles, revolvers and automatic weapons as they take position on the rooftop of a Jewish house in case of Arab attack on the Jaffa – Tel Aviv border in the Manshiah Jewish quarter in Tel Aviv, Israel, on December 27, 1947. The Zionist guerrilla force began an armed revolt against British rule in Palestine.

10392261 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Young men and women from 17 to 25 years of age, called up for “essential duties,” principally military, started registering for the Jewish army. Although many are members of the semi-official Haganah, there were other youngsters eager to sign up to defend their homes against an Arab invasion. Volunteers wait for medical examinations in Israel on Dec. 16, 1947.

10098338 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Volunteer Arab soldier for the private Army of the Jerusalem Grand Mufti are sworn in on December 15, 1947 at Abu Dis, a small Palestinian village, near Jerusalem, Israel.

10392246 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Two Jewish girls fill out their registration forms for the Jewish Army in Israel on Dec. 16, 1947. Many are now members of the semi-official Haganah.

5737159 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

A crowd of arab demonstrators burn goods taken from Jewish homes in Jerusalem, Dec. 6, 1947, during the disturbances which broke out as the arabs staged a three-day strike against the partition plan. Jewish shops and homes in the quarter were attacked and some set on fire.

5737169 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Jews who have been the enemies of the British for the past few years, have made up after hearing of the news of the declaration of the new Jewish State of Israel. Jews are seen hoisting British soldiers on their shoulders and holding the Israeli flag on Nov. 30, 1947 in Jerusalem.

4183478 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Jewish residents wave jubilantly in the streets in Tel Aviv, Israel. Celebrations began after the United Nations voted to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states.

5737158 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Arab girls shop in the market place near Manger Square in Bethlehem, Nov. 28, 1947.

5737212 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Some of the thirteen hundred Palestinian Armenian from Jaffa, Jerusalem and Haifa, in the tent camp in the grounds of the Armenian Church, Haifa, Oct. 29, 1947, where they are waiting for transport to Soviet Armenia.

7358676 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

The Illegal refugee ship’ Af al pi’ docked at Haifa, Israel, on Sept. 9, 1947 after it was intercepted in Palezine waters by the British Navy. The ship was a former LCT landing Craft Tank and was at sea with its 445 passengers for two weeks during the boarding operations one Jew was killed by gunfire and a number injured. The disembarkation took place with out incident. The Illegal were sent to Cyprus, a party of eight of the people including three sick women and one injured man were transferred to go Government Hospital Haifa. General View of the Af Al Pi at the pier showing bearding party on deck General view of the refugees coming out of the holds Boarding party about, show in photo are, Jews lined up on pier.

5737173 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

British soldier, armed with a sten gun on guard near the gangway, watches the young happy Jewish orphans as they leave the ship in the port of Haifa, Palestine, Aug. 21, 1947, where they will be bussed to Athlit for medical examination and then sent to their new homes and settlements. Five hundred orphans, the majority of whom lost their parents during World War II, were interned in Cyprus and brought to Palestine as part of the monthly immigration quota.

7357845 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Young Jewish girls ready to leave the ?Heruth? at Haifa, Israel, on Feb. 16, 1947. Refugees were in very good humor and while waiting to land for the transshipment to Cyprus, spent their time talking to the soldiers of the 6th Airbourne Division.

10207415 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Arab women and children draw water from Mary’ well in Nazareth, Israel on Dec. 7, 1946, the ancient spring which legend relates supplies water for Mary. Joseph and Jesus.

10207418 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

A view inside the Grotto, believed to be the cave in which Joseph and Mary Dwelt. A guide, left, relates the legend to a tourist as they stand by the remains of a stone table on Dec. 7, 1946 in Israel. The Grotto is situated beneath the modern Franciscan Church of St. Joseph’s, Nazareth.

10392242 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Among the Jewish refugees who have battled British authorities in recent months, in resistance to British refusal to allow them to enter Palestine, are the men, women and children who came here on the overcrowded Knesset Israel (Jewish Assembly). Seeking a homeland after years of Nazi oppression and war, the 3854 refugees on the boat were forcibly transferred to three British vessels waiting in the harbor, for deportation. With tin cans as weapons, the refugees for a time held off the British in a battle in which many of the Jews and British soldiers were injured. British soldiers, after the transshipment, remove a sign posted on the bow of the Knesset Israel by the refugees in Haifa, Israel on Dec. 4, 1946, warning the British against reprisals for anyone killed or wounded.

7090686 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

A young Jewish boy, wounded and bloody after the fight with British soldiers on board the refugee ship Knesset Israel, passes a line of soldiers to board the troopship Empire Heywood on Dec. 4, 1946 in Haifa, one of three vessels on which passengers from the refugee ship were deported.

7310737 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

A view of the King David Hotel in Israel after the dust has cleared, Aug. 6, 1946. Sappers had set a demolition charge to break up the cement flooring in preparation to cutting steel reinforcements and pulling down the bomb damaged end of the building.

9934127 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Brother Camillus Liska, Sacristan at the Grotto of St. Jerome in Jerusalem, Israel on Nov. 28, 1945.

10408002 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Down in the Jordan Valley, one of the hottest parts of the world, is thriving forage farm near the little town of Beisan. Not long ago it was practically waste land. Bedouin tribes wandered across it, feeding their flecks on the short scrubby grass, hushes and camel thorn. There was no natural irrigation and much of the land was bone dry. Some 1,400 acres comprises thriving farm growing forage for army horses. The land has been cleared irrigation organized, good seed planted and modern farm machinery brought into use. Spring 1943 saw a fine crop of tall waving. It was out by machinery and stacked ready for baling. The forage it produces soaves shipping space and even railway transport, and does not deplete local stocks repaired by the civilian population. Harvesting the first hay crop. Driver Lewis of Hassan, the Arab some advise on the driving of a tractor in Israel in April 1943. (AP Photo)

 

8654499 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

An official shows the signed document which proclaims the establishment of the new Jewish state of Israel declared by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, left, in Tel Aviv at midnight on May 14, 1948. The Jews declared independence in the new state of Israel as the 25-year British mandate over Palestine ends.

5737250 Israel And Palestine 1920 1948: The Story In 100 Photos

Mrs. Golda Meir is the only female member of the provisional council of the new state of Israel, waves following her arrival at La Guardia Field, New York, May 19, 1948 from Jerusalem. She declared that “if the United state arms embargo is lifted, we can drive the Arabs out in a few weeks.” She added that the Jewish people in Palestine were optimistic of the successful outcome of the war because finances and manpower have been solidly mobilized.

 

 



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